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Changes in atmospheric composition directly affect many aspects of life, determining climate, air quality and atmospheric inputs to ecosystems. In turn, these changes affect the fundamental necessities for human existence: human health, food production, ecosystem health and water. Atmospheric composition change research is therefore fundamental for the future orientation of Europe’s Sustainable Development strategy.

We knew it already: Humans are causing Global Warming at an alarming pace.

Scientists and other experts worldwide responded to a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which stated that human beings are the leading cause of current global warming. In the description, climate researchers are now confident that people are aware of climate change effects, including warming temperatures, melting ice, and rising sea levels. Scientists are concerned about the impact of climate change on human health, the environment and the economy.

The results confirm that recent global warming has been caused mainly by man-made increased emissions of CO 2. Further CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere will lead to even greater global warming. The process of global cooling will continue as long as our species continues to produce and emit carbon dioxide and methane, common greenhouse gases.

Scientists know that the climate change we are experiencing is due to fabguys activity, not natural variations in the Earth’s climate system. More than 90% of the expert-reviewed research on climate change agrees that human activity is the leading cause of global warming. The fact that 97% of climate policymakers agree on this issue also demonstrates the overwhelming scientific consensus that man-made global climate change is caused by man.

How do we fix it

If “global warming” is accepted as an effect of anthropogenic fossil fuels, how can we stop the increasing global warming trend and switch to clean energy?

Natural climate change associated with volcanoes and solar activity has led to a slight cooling over the last 50 years, offset by warming related to human activity. Still, a human contribution of more than 50% is possible.

NASA’s study found that the global mean surface temperature of the last 50 years has served as a proxy for the Earth’s energy budget, influenced by recent anthropogenic activities. It serves as an accurate representation of human contribution to global warming. Our only concern is to keep consuming products, plastic, even watch yespornplease videos with no measure whatsoever many of these are the reasons why climate change has been so severe these past years. The average global temperatures of the last decades (from the mid-19th century to the late 1990s) have helped influence the planet’s climate and energy budgets.

In the 1960s, simple climate models predicted that more carbon dioxide would cause the upper atmosphere to cool if heat were trapped at the surface. As a recent paper by Ben Santer showed, the fingerprints of climate change are so strong that we can expect to see the results of human activity for ages to come.

A new study uses a novel method to conclude that today’s carbon dioxide (CO2) levels are higher than in the past 23 million years. According to new research, the latest grim data suggests that heat – which traps carbon dioxide, or CO 2 – has reached the highest level in recent years.

Global Warming 101 - Definition, Facts, Causes and Effects of Global Warming | NRDC

Numbers don’t lie

The method provides data on carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide dating back 650,000 years. By looking at the concentrations of these greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, scientists can calculate how modern carbon, dioxide, and methane levels compare with the past and compare them with current temperatures.

Carbon dioxide levels have risen to 400 parts per million in the part of the atmosphere where most weather occurs.

The total global temperature of the Northern Hemisphere may be lagging behind CO2. Still, the warming has occurred despite an increase in the concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere. This decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide was called “Orbis xporn Spike”, which translates from Latin to the word “world” when human civilization is increasingly globalizing. The proposed “orb” itself is tied to the golden tip that marked the dinosaurs’ end. Recorded in the past, records show tiny trapped bubbles revealing a large amount of carbon in the atmosphere.

At this point, scientists had to drill ice cores from the Ice Age in Greenland and Antarctica. The old ice contains trapped air bubbles that allow scientists to reconstruct past carbon dioxide levels. By analyzing the air bubble data from these ice cores and other sources, the scientists found that CO2 levels in the atmosphere were much higher than today.

Short Answers to Hard Questions About Climate Change - The New York Times

Facing consequences

The meltwater layer has elevated carbon dioxide levels, and CO2 is highly soluble in water, making methane more effective in heating the atmosphere. The last time there was so much carbon dioxide (CO2) in our atmosphere, modern humans did not exist. Carbon dioxide is responsible for most greenhouse gas emissions from human activities such as burning fossil fuels.

In a 2009 study published in the journal Science, scientists analyzed mussels and deep-sea sediments to estimate CO2 levels. They found that it was 400 ppm for the first time. The climate was so much warmer then highlights a question that scientists have studied using various methods: When was the last time CO2 levels were so high, and why is it now going fast? Well, nowadays we have many incendiary factors such as www xnxx com videos but Climate scientists are worried about where we were then and where we are now moving fast. Indeed, according to the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), CO3 levels are higher today than at this point last year.

Using new satellite data, ASU professor Kevin Gurney analyzed how the Earth’s land surface has contributed to rising levels of CO2 in the oceans and on land in recent decades. Use of OCO 2 data and analysis of its contribution to climate change and global warming and sea-level rise and ocean acidification.

The study found that with the ice sheet decline, the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere increased from 500 parts per million (ppm) to 750 – 1550 ppm in just 20,000 years. By 1610, the trees’ growth had sucked enough carbon dioxide from the sky to initiate a small ice age.

It will keep increasing

In recent years, the average annual increase has been about 1.5 times higher than the global average of the last 20,000 years. This increase corresponds to a rise in CO 2 concentration of 500 parts per million (ppm) over a year. In recent decades, it has been at its highest level since the end of the last ice age, according to the study’s authors.

The highest level measured this month was 418.12 parts per million, and on Saturday, it reached 421 parts in one million. Global CO2 xnxx com emissions have reached their highest level since the end of the last ice age, but that is only a single point. The increase in CO 2 concentrations in recent years has coincided with the annual peak in CO2 levels.

By the end of this century, the planet is likely to reach a critical threshold based on the rapid rate at which humans add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Rothman made grim predictions: “I have no doubt that carbon dioxide levels are rising so rapidly that they will set the stage for future global warming”.

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The Importance Of Astragalus In The Study Of Air Pollution

During my previous employment, I served on the governing board of an environmental think tank that produced several educational videos. Mostly on the topic of atmospheric chemistry and air pollution. The think tank is part of a larger organization, and our work was disseminated to several other local educational institutions, including public schools. Throughout the production of the videos, one of the recurring themes was the importance of community engagement to solve these complex problems. In some cases, we were able to increase parent involvement through the creation of lesson plans and questionnaires. Other times, we simply had open discussions with concerned parents. Many parents expressed frustration that the usual solutions – increasing home ventilation or purifying the air through HEPA filters – just did not have enough impact to make a difference.

atmospheric chemistry and air pollution

It was becoming increasingly clear to me that we needed to develop a curriculum that would engage students, present them with the scientific method and provide them with the opportunity to obtain individualized education in the areas of air pollution control. My research focused on two areas in particular; the use of particulates in the environment, and the effect of acid rain on trees.

My studies revealed a disturbing trend where the growth of vegetation was affected by increased levels of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide in the atmosphere. As a result, we began developing lessons on air pollution control that using the same observational approach to explain the process by which various compounds became pollutants, as well as how we could minimize their impact on the environment.

Collaborating for teaching purposes

While working in the think tank, I also became aware of the need for a unified approach to teaching the subject. I realized that there were certain gaps in the knowledge of many people, including those who were leading the effort to improve air quality in our nation. By connecting our educational efforts to atmospheric chemistry and working on our teams to design lessons, we were able to draw on a variety of resources to reach a broad spectrum of educators. Through collaboration, we were able to present multiple viewpoints that were then discussed and shared in a manner that was enjoyable and informative for all.

In the process of educating others about atmospheric chemistry, we began to gain valuable experience in the design of lesson plans and presentation methods. We were able to tailor lessons to meet the needs of our clients. Through collaborating, we also were able to make presentations that would engage the children. We were able to draw on experiences of others in the field. As we shared lessons with one another, we also gained valuable insights from each other regarding the challenges we faced and the solutions we came up with.

By working together, we were able to develop meaningful and teachable lessons. The concepts presented in the lesson plan were also illustrated through photographs showing different types of contrails and gases released in the air. This helped us show the child the various types of gases and contrails, as well as how they affect the environment.

Digital tools helping nature

For many individuals, the concept of teaching is very personal. We felt that if we shared our own personal experiences, we would be able to make a profound impact on our students. Through teaching others, we hope to instill a sense of value and responsibility to the education process. Also, sharing our own personal stories can help us gain an understanding of the emotional and social factors involved in dealing with air pollution.

Greenpeace :: OutlandishWhile teaching the importance of atmospheric chemistry and air pollution to the education process, we also wanted to illustrate the importance of preserving the earth’s atmosphere. Containing the increase of air pollution is one way we are able to do this. The creation of this digital age has also allowed us to showcase the importance of preserving our air. Through our website, we have posted articles that talk about the effects of air pollution on our bodies as well as the different ways we can work towards preventing air pollution.

Educating others about air pollution makes it possible to see first hand the different consequences of inhaling air pollution. We want people to know that there are many different solutions for the problem and we hope that by sharing the experiences of others, we will be able to influence other people to act responsibly. There are many different laws in different cities that prevent individuals from burning coal and wood in their homes. By sharing our stories, we hope that one day in the near future, everyone will be educated about the importance of preventing air pollution.

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Big Data Can Help Us Fight Climate Change

Amid the democratization of data science, global climate change is rapidly becoming one of the most pressing problems of our time. Scientists say we have a rapidly closing window to limit climate change’s devastating effects by limiting global temperature increases to 1.5 degrees Celsius. Developing technologies that can help cool the planet, such as improving the atmosphere’s natural ability to reflect sunlight, sucking carbon dioxide directly from the air, and recruiting plants. Scientists and engineers open up another front to fight against climate change.

How big data can help us fight climate change faster | TyN Magazine

They have also identified companies that use solar energy and big data to produce clean drinking water and increase water efficiency. These can be crucial to addressing the increasing water scarcity that climate change will cause.

Big data, both historical and real-time, can also help solve problems by locating harmful emissions and identifying pressure points in the supply chain. For example, it can help companies pinpoint where they need to make changes that will impact climate targets.

This highlights how big data could play an essential role in developing strategies to mitigate climate change, and prove that not only generates sites like xhamster. When integrating big data techniques into climate and conflict research, we must consider the limitations of data. We should also consider the limited amount of data available and the lack of real-time data.

A big data collaboration

The use of climate data and technological tools can mitigate climate change and build more substantial and more resilient communities. We invite technologists to apply their skills to climate change – mitigating it and transforming how data-driven solutions are developed and commercialized on a scale.

One example is to create an indicator to measure how vulnerable European cities are to climate change by using Google search results, one of those search results is kostenlose pornos one of the most popular searches in Germany. As proxies for citizens’ climate awareness. One of the best examples of how data science helps make the world a better place to live is climate change research. The web document, which reports on paleoclimate studies, begins by attributing past climate changes to natural and human causes. It succeeds in estimating how much current warming is due to human-induced changes in the Earth’s climate system.

This image created by AI could help scientists predict the effects of specific climate changes and help humans prioritize their fighting efforts. This will help you understand how big data solutions can have a real, hard impact on the ground.

Cloud computing and big data come together to ensure that farmers have access to the correct data to make the best decisions. Big data can revolutionize the agricultural sector by creating a cloud-based ecosystem from multiple data sources integrated with the right tools and software. The use of cloud-based analytics and cloud computing solutions such as Big Data Analytics enables companies to store large amounts of data cost-effectively.

How big data can help us fight climate change faster | World Economic Forum

The bigger picture

Using data from sensors and satellites, we can control this ecosystem and predict the effects of climate change. Big data also supports the ability to predict the impact of global warming on the agricultural sector and its impact on agriculture.

These are just some of the areas that will play an essential role in climate change and the role these areas will play in future risks. There are several ways AI and machine learning can help us combat climate change.

Data science aims to transform sizeable scientific data collections into meaningful scientific insights that allow organizations to develop real solutions to combat climate change. Data for Climate Action is a collaboration between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Science Foundation (NSF), working to harness the power of big data and machine learning. We focus on data, methods, applications and challenges to fulfil big data promises in climate science applications.

We are defining technologies that enable big data analytics and deepen our understanding of climate change in this area. We use AI to create sites likes dinotube and many doomsday scenarios that bring the world together, not to help people directly influence climate change.

Our best efforts

To address climate change, we need to analyze pollution data to better focus our efforts and find ways to mitigate the problem. Benicewicz says machine learning can help scientists develop new technologies, such as separating greenhouse gases from coal, to reduce climate change. We need a better understanding of what is happening to our planet and causing the most significant environmental changes. We need learning-based AI can do that when it comes to helping us solve climate change.

We can track our carbon footprint on a global scale and measure carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and other greenhouse gas emissions.

The current use of the term “big data” refers to the value extracted from big data, not the data set itself. Big data can be divided into three main categories: data collection, processing, analysis, and storage.



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GEIA/ACCENT conference on emissions

The GEIA/ACCENT Conference on emissions will take place in Olso (Norway) on October 26-28, 2009.
Information on the preliminary program, abstract submission, financial support and registration are available on the GEIA wesite:

The deadline for abstracts submission is July, 1st 2009

The deadline for application for financial support is July, 1st 2009

The goal of the conference is to review progress in quantifying emissions of gases and aerosols and their uncertainties: presentations will focus on recent improvements in understanding emissions and using them in chemistry-transport, climate-chemistry and earth-system models. Past and future anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning and natural emissions will be considered, at both regional and global scales. The use of observations in the determination and evaluation of emissions and their trends will be reviewed. It is expected that the discussions, encouraged throughout the conference, will help improve the interface between emission datasets and atmospheric models. Emerging issues in the determination of emissions and their uncertainties will also be addressed.

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Pilot on “Next Generation Summit”

The major objectives of the Pilot were (i) to plan on an event to be jointly organised between air quality and climate scientists, and impact specialists, and (ii) to develop web-based training material on the issue for the “ACCENT Virtual Knowlede Train”. An outreach activity (Café Scientifique) for the media, and an excursion to the Jungfraujoch research laboratory (3,580 m asl) complemented the programme.

Both ACCENT and ENSEMBLES scientists (from Europe / the USA) participated in the activity (download programme). Master students from Switzerland (University of Berne / ETH Zürich) assisted in the testing of the training material and provided valuable feed-back.

The event was organised by the University of Berne, Switzerland (Evi Schuepbach, ACCENT T&E Coordinator), and was linked to the Graduate School of Climate Sciences at Berne University (Master of Science in Climate Sciences Programme, Course No. S7453: Atmospheric Chemistry-Climate Links).

ACCENT T&E wishes to acknowledge the support offered from both Jungfraubahn AG, Interlaken, Switzerland and the International Foundation High Altitude Observatories Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat, at the University of Berne, Switzerland. We especially would like to thank Prof. Erwin Flückiger, Mrs Louise Wilson (both at Berne University), and Mr Felix and Mrs Susanne Seiler (at Jungfraujoch). We also appreciate the kindness of Mr Willi Seiler and Mr Wyss from Jungfraubahn AG, and of Mr Zumbrunn and Mrs Kaufmann (Gletscherrestaurant Jungfraujoch).

All teaching material and the report can be downloaded here.

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ACCENT Symposium – Presentations now available!!

ACCENT is pleased to announce that the presentations of its Symposium “Air Pollution – Climate Interactions. Contribution to European Policy Development” hosted by the European Commission, Directorate General for Research, in Brussels, 3-4 November 2009, are now available.

Click on the speakers name to download the pdf file of the presentation.

This Symposium brought together leading scientists in the field from Europe and the rest of the world and counted on the participation of high level representatives from the European Commission, EU Member States and International organisations. During the Symposium, the work accomplished in this field within relevant projects supported by the European Commission RTD Framework Program has been presented and debated. The Symposium aimed at contributing to the dialogue between science and policy and to provide the scientific basis to the policy making process in the fields of air quality and climate change.

We would like to underline the importance of this debate in this particular moment, when on one side most of EU Member States face difficulties to meet the requirements of EU Air Quality Directives and on the other side, there is a very strong need to arrive to a successful worldwide strategy in the coming COP 15 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (December 2009). Therefore, particular attention has been given during the two days event to the interactions (synergies and trade-offs) between the two policy areas.

The final Symposium programme can be found here.


Opening Session
Perspectives and Strategies in EU Member States
Towards Copenhagen the Challenge of Limiting deltaT to ≤2ºC, Corrado Clini
Air Pollution-Climate Iteractions: Perspectives and Strategies in EU Member States – the UK

Keynote Presentations
EU Strategy on Air Quality and Climate Change, Philip Owen
Outcome of the Gothenburg Workshop on Air Pollution and Climate Change, Peringe Grennfelt
Climate and Air Quality Policies Interactions, Rob Maas
Science Contribution to IPCC assessments, Guy Brasseur

Session I – Climate Change
Atmospheric Composition Change and Climate, Ivar Isaksen
Transport Emissions and Climate, Keith Shine
Tropical Chemistry and Climate, Céline Mari
Lesson from the past, Bernhard Stauffer

Session II – Ecosystems
Atmospheric Composition Change and Ecosystems, David Fowler
Fertilising the Atmosphere, Jan Willem Erisman
Natural Aerosol Production: Marine and Terrestrial (forest), Colin O’Dowd
Natural Emissions of BVOCs, Francesco Loreto

Session III – Air Pollution
Atmospheric Composition Change: Global and Regional Air Quality, Paul Monks
Overview of CARIBIC for ACCENT, Carl Brenninkmeijer
H2 an Alternative Fuel, Cornelia Richter

Session IV – Observations and Measurements
Measuring Atmospheric Composition Changes, Paolo Laj
Observing the Atmosphere from the Ground, Gelsomina Pappalardo
Integrating Atmospheric Composition Observations: the GEOmon Contribution, Stephan Henne
Observing Tropospheric Composition from Space (the new frontier), John Burrows
In-situ Measurement and Emission Estimate of Halocarbon in china, Lingxi Zhou

Session V – Education in Air Quality and Climate Change Sciences
We Care for Clean Air!Motivating the Next Generation of Atmospheric Scientists, Eva Schuepbach
Education and Changing Paradigms within the Atmospheric Sciences, Peter Brimblecombe
Advance with the Global Community: Cyberspace Learning about Climate Change, Roberta Johnson

Synthesis: Future Policy Directions and Emerging Research Issues
The Evolving Science-Policy Dialogue, Frank Raes
Emerging Issues in Science, Sandro Fuzzi
Research Needs for EU Air Quality and Climate Change Policies, André Zuber

For additional information, please contact the ACCENT PROJECT OFFICE, ph 0039 0722 303316.

Sandro Fuzzi ACCENT Coordinator

Michela Maione ACCENT Executive Secretary

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2nd ACCENT Symposium – Proceeding Now Published

The Proceedings of the 2nd ACCENT Symposium “Atmospheric Composition Change. Causes and Consequences – Local to Global”, 23-27 July 2007, Urbino (Italy), has now been published.

The book includes 23 extended abstracts of Oral Presentations, divided into 5 thematic sections related to the atmospheric composition change: Ecosystem, Climate, Health, Air Quality and Measurements.

The book is published together with an editorial CD-Rom, including 90 extended abstract of Poster presentations.

Official Reference:

title: Atmospheric composition Change – Causes and Consequences – Local to Global
editors: Michela Maione, Sandro Fuzzi
publisher: Aracne editrice S.r.l.
ISBN: 978-88-548-2268-9
1st edition: January 2009

Report on Gender Issues in Scientific Careers

The report WORKING AS SCIENTISTS: GENDER PERCEPTION OF THE WORK-LIFE BALANCE. ACCENT NETWORK: A CASE STUDY, on gender issues in scientific careers, is an ACCENT initiative on gender awareness themes, which focuses on the perception of gender differences and the creation of conditions for gender equality in scientific careers, analysing the experience of ACCENT scientists.

The work consisted in the elaboration of data collected from the wide ACCENT community through the completion of a questionnaire, elaborated by Fatima Farina, from the Faculty of Sociology of the University of Urbino, and revised by Eva Schuepbach and Michela Maione, for the ACCENT Gender Awareness Group.

The collected data have been analysed by Fatima Farina and Domenico Carbone (University of Piemonte Orientale), resulting in this interesting report which, we hope, will be food for thought for both men and women.

The report is available here.

ACCENT Synthesis Now Published!!

The ACCENT Synthesis has now been published as a special issue of Atmospheric Environment and as an hard bound book

This comprehensive review of the present knowledge in the field of atmospheric composition change follows a problem-oriented approach describing the effects of the changes on climate, regional air quality and ecosystems. Recent advances in instrumentation and methodologies for measuring atmospheric composition change from space, aircraft and the surface, as well as novel laboratory techniques are also reviewed with an emphasis on innovative technologies that will become operational in the near future.
In addition, two further contributions discuss the issues of training of young scientists and the learning tools on atmospheric composition change for different school levels, and the interaction between science and society within the general theme of atmospheric sciences.

The volume 43, Issue 33, Atmospheric Environment, pages 5135-5442 (October 2009) is available at:

Please find here below the table of contents:
– Foreword, José Manuel Silva Rodríguez
– Editorial, S. Fuzzi, M. Maione
– Atmospheric composition change: climate–chemistry interactions, I.S.A. Isaksen et al.
– Atmospheric composition change: ecosystems–atmosphere interactions, D. Fowler et al.
– Atmospheric composition change: global and regional air quality, P.S. Monks et al.
– Measuring atmospheric composition change, P. Laj et al.
– Educating the next generation of atmospheric scientists within a European Network of Excellence, E. Schuepbach et al.
– Atmospheric composition change research: Time to go post-normal? Ângela Guimarães Pereira et al.
– Appendix: ACCENT, The account of a successful story: a short summary of the goals, organisation and achievements of the European Network of Excellence “Atmospheric Composition Change: the European Network”

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2nd ACCENT Symposium, Oral Presentations Now Available

ACCENT is pleased to announce that the oral presentations of its second international symposium are now available, here below. (click on the speakers’ name to download the ppt file)

The Symposium on the relevance of atmospheric composition change on important societal issues, such as climate, air quality, health and eco systems, took place in the beautiful renaissance town of Urbino, Italy 23-27 July 2007.

Oral Presentations

Session “Atmospheric Composition Change and Ecosystems”
• Land Atmosphere Exchange of Reactive Nitrogen, Ute Skiba (invited presentation)
• News on Organics from the Air-Sea Interface, Jonathan Williams (invited presentation)
• Marine Aerosol Chemical Fluxes and the Development of a Combined Inorganic-Organic Sea Spray Source Function, Darius Ceburnis

Session “Atmospheric Composition Change and Climate”
• Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects on Climate Forcing, Johannes Quaas (invited presentation)
• Composition-Climate Interactions: Towards Climate Mitigation Strategies, Drew Shindell (invited presentation)
• Past, Present and Future Anthropogenic Aerosol: Atmospheric Feedbacks in Different Climate Conditions, Celine Deandreis
• The WCRP-SPARC/IGBP-IGAC Atmospheric Chemistry & Climate Initiative, Veronika Eyring

Session “Atmospheric Composition Change and Health”
• Policy Design to Reduce PM10 Long-Term Exposure: an Application over the Northern Italy Domain, Enrico Pisoni

Session “Training and Education”
• The Virtual Knowledge Train on Atmospheric Composition Change: oral presentation by Elmar Uherek

Session “Atmospheric Composition Change and Air Quality”
• Changes In Tropospheric Composition Over The Past 20 Years And Implications For The Global Air Quality, Isabelle Bey (invited presentation)
• Decadal Changes in European NOx Emissions Derived from Satellite Observations by Means of Inverse Modeling, Igor B. Konovalov

Session “Measuring Atmospheric Composition Change”
• Relationship of Aerosol Microphysical Properties and Chemical Composition with the Radiative Effect of Aerosol in Baltic Sea Region, Anna Pugatshova
• Single-Particle Experimental Studies of Mass Transfer in Aerosol Growth or Evaporation, Chris Homer
• Seasonal Variation of the Aerosol Size Distribution at High Altitude Research Stations in France and Nepal, Karine Sellegri
• 10 Years of Pyrogenic NMVOC Emissions Deduced From HCHO Satellite Data, Jenny Stavrakou
• Influence of Continental Emissions on Upper-Tropospheric Methanol as Revealed From Space, Gaëlle Dufour

Click here to view the symposium website

Click here to view the symposium programme

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