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We knew it already: Humans are causing Global Warming at an alarming pace.

Scientists and other experts worldwide responded to a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which stated that human beings are the leading cause of current global warming. In the description, climate researchers are now confident that people are aware of climate change effects, including warming temperatures, melting ice, and rising sea levels. Scientists are concerned about the impact of climate change on human health, the environment and the economy.

The results confirm that recent global warming has been caused mainly by man-made increased emissions of CO 2. Further CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere will lead to even greater global warming. The process of global cooling will continue as long as our species continues to produce and emit carbon dioxide and methane, common greenhouse gases.

Scientists know that the climate change we are experiencing is due to fabguys activity, not natural variations in the Earth’s climate system. More than 90% of the expert-reviewed research on climate change agrees that human activity is the leading cause of global warming. The fact that 97% of climate policymakers agree on this issue also demonstrates the overwhelming scientific consensus that man-made global climate change is caused by man.

How do we fix it

If “global warming” is accepted as an effect of anthropogenic fossil fuels, how can we stop the increasing global warming trend and switch to clean energy?

Natural climate change associated with volcanoes and solar activity has led to a slight cooling over the last 50 years, offset by warming related to human activity. Still, a human contribution of more than 50% is possible.

NASA’s study found that the global mean surface temperature of the last 50 years has served as a proxy for the Earth’s energy budget, influenced by recent anthropogenic activities. It serves as an accurate representation of human contribution to global warming. Our only concern is to keep consuming products, plastic, even watch yespornplease videos with no measure whatsoever many of these are the reasons why climate change has been so severe these past years. The average global temperatures of the last decades (from the mid-19th century to the late 1990s) have helped influence the planet’s climate and energy budgets.

In the 1960s, simple climate models predicted that more carbon dioxide would cause the upper atmosphere to cool if heat were trapped at the surface. As a recent paper by Ben Santer showed, the fingerprints of climate change are so strong that we can expect to see the results of human activity for ages to come.

A new study uses a novel method to conclude that today’s carbon dioxide (CO2) levels are higher than in the past 23 million years. According to new research, the latest grim data suggests that heat – which traps carbon dioxide, or CO 2 – has reached the highest level in recent years.

Global Warming 101 - Definition, Facts, Causes and Effects of Global Warming | NRDC

Numbers don’t lie

The method provides data on carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide dating back 650,000 years. By looking at the concentrations of these greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, scientists can calculate how modern carbon, dioxide, and methane levels compare with the past and compare them with current temperatures.

Carbon dioxide levels have risen to 400 parts per million in the part of the atmosphere where most weather occurs.

The total global temperature of the Northern Hemisphere may be lagging behind CO2. Still, the warming has occurred despite an increase in the concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere. This decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide was called “Orbis xporn Spike”, which translates from Latin to the word “world” when human civilization is increasingly globalizing. The proposed “orb” itself is tied to the golden tip that marked the dinosaurs’ end. Recorded in the past, records show tiny trapped bubbles revealing a large amount of carbon in the atmosphere.

At this point, scientists had to drill ice cores from the Ice Age in Greenland and Antarctica. The old ice contains trapped air bubbles that allow scientists to reconstruct past carbon dioxide levels. By analyzing the air bubble data from these ice cores and other sources, the scientists found that CO2 levels in the atmosphere were much higher than today.

Short Answers to Hard Questions About Climate Change - The New York Times

Facing consequences

The meltwater layer has elevated carbon dioxide levels, and CO2 is highly soluble in water, making methane more effective in heating the atmosphere. The last time there was so much carbon dioxide (CO2) in our atmosphere, modern humans did not exist. Carbon dioxide is responsible for most greenhouse gas emissions from human activities such as burning fossil fuels.

In a 2009 study published in the journal Science, scientists analyzed mussels and deep-sea sediments to estimate CO2 levels. They found that it was 400 ppm for the first time. The climate was so much warmer then highlights a question that scientists have studied using various methods: When was the last time CO2 levels were so high, and why is it now going fast? Well, nowadays we have many incendiary factors such as www xnxx com videos but Climate scientists are worried about where we were then and where we are now moving fast. Indeed, according to the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), CO3 levels are higher today than at this point last year.

Using new satellite data, ASU professor Kevin Gurney analyzed how the Earth’s land surface has contributed to rising levels of CO2 in the oceans and on land in recent decades. Use of OCO 2 data and analysis of its contribution to climate change and global warming and sea-level rise and ocean acidification.

The study found that with the ice sheet decline, the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere increased from 500 parts per million (ppm) to 750 – 1550 ppm in just 20,000 years. By 1610, the trees’ growth had sucked enough carbon dioxide from the sky to initiate a small ice age.

It will keep increasing

In recent years, the average annual increase has been about 1.5 times higher than the global average of the last 20,000 years. This increase corresponds to a rise in CO 2 concentration of 500 parts per million (ppm) over a year. In recent decades, it has been at its highest level since the end of the last ice age, according to the study’s authors.

The highest level measured this month was 418.12 parts per million, and on Saturday, it reached 421 parts in one million. Global CO2 xnxx com emissions have reached their highest level since the end of the last ice age, but that is only a single point. The increase in CO 2 concentrations in recent years has coincided with the annual peak in CO2 levels.

By the end of this century, the planet is likely to reach a critical threshold based on the rapid rate at which humans add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Rothman made grim predictions: “I have no doubt that carbon dioxide levels are rising so rapidly that they will set the stage for future global warming”.

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The Importance Of Astragalus In The Study Of Air Pollution

During my previous employment, I served on the governing board of an environmental think tank that produced several educational videos. Mostly on the topic of atmospheric chemistry and air pollution. The think tank is part of a larger organization, and our work was disseminated to several other local educational institutions, including public schools. Throughout the production of the videos, one of the recurring themes was the importance of community engagement to solve these complex problems. In some cases, we were able to increase parent involvement through the creation of lesson plans and questionnaires. Other times, we simply had open discussions with concerned parents. Many parents expressed frustration that the usual solutions – increasing home ventilation or purifying the air through HEPA filters – just did not have enough impact to make a difference.

atmospheric chemistry and air pollution

It was becoming increasingly clear to me that we needed to develop a curriculum that would engage students, present them with the scientific method and provide them with the opportunity to obtain individualized education in the areas of air pollution control. My research focused on two areas in particular; the use of particulates in the environment, and the effect of acid rain on trees.

My studies revealed a disturbing trend where the growth of vegetation was affected by increased levels of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide in the atmosphere. As a result, we began developing lessons on air pollution control that using the same observational approach to explain the process by which various compounds became pollutants, as well as how we could minimize their impact on the environment.

Collaborating for teaching purposes

While working in the think tank, I also became aware of the need for a unified approach to teaching the subject. I realized that there were certain gaps in the knowledge of many people, including those who were leading the effort to improve air quality in our nation. By connecting our educational efforts to atmospheric chemistry and working on our teams to design lessons, we were able to draw on a variety of resources to reach a broad spectrum of educators. Through collaboration, we were able to present multiple viewpoints that were then discussed and shared in a manner that was enjoyable and informative for all.

In the process of educating others about atmospheric chemistry, we began to gain valuable experience in the design of lesson plans and presentation methods. We were able to tailor lessons to meet the needs of our clients. Through collaborating, we also were able to make presentations that would engage the children. We were able to draw on experiences of others in the field. As we shared lessons with one another, we also gained valuable insights from each other regarding the challenges we faced and the solutions we came up with.

By working together, we were able to develop meaningful and teachable lessons. The concepts presented in the lesson plan were also illustrated through photographs showing different types of contrails and gases released in the air. This helped us show the child the various types of gases and contrails, as well as how they affect the environment.

Digital tools helping nature

For many individuals, the concept of teaching is very personal. We felt that if we shared our own personal experiences, we would be able to make a profound impact on our students. Through teaching others, we hope to instill a sense of value and responsibility to the education process. Also, sharing our own personal stories can help us gain an understanding of the emotional and social factors involved in dealing with air pollution.

Greenpeace :: OutlandishWhile teaching the importance of atmospheric chemistry and air pollution to the education process, we also wanted to illustrate the importance of preserving the earth’s atmosphere. Containing the increase of air pollution is one way we are able to do this. The creation of this digital age has also allowed us to showcase the importance of preserving our air. Through our website, we have posted articles that talk about the effects of air pollution on our bodies as well as the different ways we can work towards preventing air pollution.

Educating others about air pollution makes it possible to see first hand the different consequences of inhaling air pollution. We want people to know that there are many different solutions for the problem and we hope that by sharing the experiences of others, we will be able to influence other people to act responsibly. There are many different laws in different cities that prevent individuals from burning coal and wood in their homes. By sharing our stories, we hope that one day in the near future, everyone will be educated about the importance of preventing air pollution.

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Big Data Can Help Us Fight Climate Change

Amid the democratization of data science, global climate change is rapidly becoming one of the most pressing problems of our time. Scientists say we have a rapidly closing window to limit climate change’s devastating effects by limiting global temperature increases to 1.5 degrees Celsius. Developing technologies that can help cool the planet, such as improving the atmosphere’s natural ability to reflect sunlight, sucking carbon dioxide directly from the air, and recruiting plants. Scientists and engineers open up another front to fight against climate change.

How big data can help us fight climate change faster | TyN Magazine

They have also identified companies that use solar energy and big data to produce clean drinking water and increase water efficiency. These can be crucial to addressing the increasing water scarcity that climate change will cause.

Big data, both historical and real-time, can also help solve problems by locating harmful emissions and identifying pressure points in the supply chain. For example, it can help companies pinpoint where they need to make changes that will impact climate targets.

This highlights how big data could play an essential role in developing strategies to mitigate climate change, and prove that not only generates sites like xhamster. When integrating big data techniques into climate and conflict research, we must consider the limitations of data. We should also consider the limited amount of data available and the lack of real-time data.

A big data collaboration

The use of climate data and technological tools can mitigate climate change and build more substantial and more resilient communities. We invite technologists to apply their skills to climate change – mitigating it and transforming how data-driven solutions are developed and commercialized on a scale.

One example is to create an indicator to measure how vulnerable European cities are to climate change by using Google search results, one of those search results is kostenlose pornos one of the most popular searches in Germany. As proxies for citizens’ climate awareness. One of the best examples of how data science helps make the world a better place to live is climate change research. The web document, which reports on paleoclimate studies, begins by attributing past climate changes to natural and human causes. It succeeds in estimating how much current warming is due to human-induced changes in the Earth’s climate system.

This image created by AI could help scientists predict the effects of specific climate changes and help humans prioritize their fighting efforts. This will help you understand how big data solutions can have a real, hard impact on the ground.

Cloud computing and big data come together to ensure that farmers have access to the correct data to make the best decisions. Big data can revolutionize the agricultural sector by creating a cloud-based ecosystem from multiple data sources integrated with the right tools and software. The use of cloud-based analytics and cloud computing solutions such as Big Data Analytics enables companies to store large amounts of data cost-effectively.

How big data can help us fight climate change faster | World Economic Forum

The bigger picture

Using data from sensors and satellites, we can control this ecosystem and predict the effects of climate change. Big data also supports the ability to predict the impact of global warming on the agricultural sector and its impact on agriculture.

These are just some of the areas that will play an essential role in climate change and the role these areas will play in future risks. There are several ways AI and machine learning can help us combat climate change.

Data science aims to transform sizeable scientific data collections into meaningful scientific insights that allow organizations to develop real solutions to combat climate change. Data for Climate Action is a collaboration between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Science Foundation (NSF), working to harness the power of big data and machine learning. We focus on data, methods, applications and challenges to fulfil big data promises in climate science applications.

We are defining technologies that enable big data analytics and deepen our understanding of climate change in this area. We use AI to create sites likes dinotube and many doomsday scenarios that bring the world together, not to help people directly influence climate change.

Our best efforts

To address climate change, we need to analyze pollution data to better focus our efforts and find ways to mitigate the problem. Benicewicz says machine learning can help scientists develop new technologies, such as separating greenhouse gases from coal, to reduce climate change. We need a better understanding of what is happening to our planet and causing the most significant environmental changes. We need learning-based AI can do that when it comes to helping us solve climate change.

We can track our carbon footprint on a global scale and measure carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and other greenhouse gas emissions.

The current use of the term “big data” refers to the value extracted from big data, not the data set itself. Big data can be divided into three main categories: data collection, processing, analysis, and storage.

 

 

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Answers to the Urbino Questions

ACCENTs first policy-driven synthesis report entitled Answers to the Urbino Questions is now available for download.

The report summarises the answers by the atmospheric chemistry and air pollution research community to questions posed by the policy makers regarding the robustness of the analysis leading to the European Commissions 2005 Thematic strategic on Air Pollution (download the report).

The report provides a short version of the answers. To access all the supporting material, including the references to the scientific literature, click here.

This report is ACCENTs first policy-driven synthesis written by scientists for and to some extent in collaboration with policy-makers, and so we prepared a short survey about the structure and contents of the report. The survey will help us to improve future similar processes and communications (all answers are anonymous).

You may answer on-line to the survey.

It will only take 7 minutes of your time!

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Urbino dialogue

ACCENT has opened a blog to allow you to participate in an open discussion on science – policy – public interaction.

What has ACCENT done about it?

Is there a broad understanding about what we could do more?

The blog presents an introduction and five discussion statements on
– the way ACCENT performs its science
– the way ACCENT interacts with other scientific disciplines and with non-scientists
– ACCENTs interaction with policy
– ACCENTs interaction with civil society
– the communication of ACCENT science

The results of the discusison will form the basis for the special session on the issue at the 2nd ACCENT Symposium, 25 July, Urbino.

You are invited to participate in the blog!
Go to
http://alba.jrc.it/blog/accent/
and click on the icon Urbino Dialogue 07
(works best with Intenert Explorer and Firefox)

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Answers to the Gothenburg Questions – Now Available online!!

The ACCENTs Second Policy-Driven Synthesis, “Answers to the Gothenburg Questions”, edited by Jens Hjorth and Frank Raes, is now available online.

This report, written by scientists for the policy maker, is presented as answers by the atmospheric chemistry and air pollution research community to questions defined though a participatory process involving policy makers and scientists, in view of the revision of the Gothenburg Protocol.

Download the Report here.

Definition of the questions
The process started at the meeting “Air pollution and its relationship to climate change and sustainable development ” organized by ASTA, NORDEN and ACCENT (Gothenburg, 12-14 March, 2007, http://asta.ivi.se/Workshops/). This meeting initially produced 19 questions. They were subsequently prioritized through the involvement of 9 policy makers and 14 scientists. The policy makers indicated what questions are most relevant in the light of the revision of the Gothenburg Protocol. The scientists indicated for which of those questions there was enough information to give an answer during the course of 2008. The 19 questions were reduced to 10 (see Appendix). A discussion within the ACCENT management committee and further editing resulted in their final form.
The answers to these so called “Gothenburg questions” were prepared based on ACCENTs scientific synthesis and integration of the present state of atmospheric chemistry research. This synthesis and integration was performed during 2008 and 2009. For some questions, out of the scope of ACCENT, other experts were called to contribute. Finally, each answer was reviewed by one or more scientists.

Issues covered
Significant two-way interactions between climate change and air pollution are illustrated. They call for an integrated climate change and air pollution policy. The data needed to develop such an integrated policy are reviewed. Synergies and trade-offs between greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission control measures are listed. In particular, the benefits of the EU Climate & Energy package for air pollution are quantified. There is a further focus on emission control measures for particulate matter from diesel engines, and on the emissions from marine and air transport. With discussions about the effects of tropospheric ozone on carbon uptake in the biosphere, and about the effect of air pollution by reactive nitrogen on biodiversity, significant interactions between air pollution and the biosphere are illustrated. Some of the data required to study these interactions are reviewed.

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Call for ACCENT Infrastructures is permamently open

The call for infrastructures is permamently open.

A number of research infrastructures (research aircraft, laboratory facilities, advanced analytical instrumentation and/or monitoring stations) are currently operational in Europe for atmospheric studies. New methodologies for the investigation of atmospheric mechanisms, generation of original and high quality data for modelling purposes have emphasised the need for advanced facilities over Europe. Except for a few co-ordinated international projects or already established European large-scale facilities, there is a clear lack of a co-ordination programme that would permit and simplify the access of all scientists to any research facilities within an extended European research area. For that purpose, a co-ordinated effort to establish a large-scale synergy allowing access to research infrastructures, diffusion of information and use of generated databases from a certain number of facilities would be extremely beneficial.

Click here to read more!

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New EDGAR data on greenhouse gas emission by country and on grid

Announcement of EDGAR v4.0 release: new version with greenhouse gas emissions 1970-2005

We are pleased to inform you that the EDGAR v4.0 greenhouse gas emissions dataset is now available for download at the new EDGAR website hosted by JRC.
EDGAR v4.0 provides insight in annual emissions of greenhouse gas emissions by country, world region, sectors, and on spatial grid in the period 1970-2005.

EDGAR v4.0 greenhouse gas emissions
The current release contains the following greenhouse gases: Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Hydrofluorocarbons (HFC-23, 32, 125, 134a, 143a, 152a, 227ea, 236fa, 245fa, 365mfc, 43-10-mee), Perfluorocarbons (PFCs: CF4, C2F6, C3F8, c-C4F8, C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16), and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6). http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/overview.php

The following data are available for download (after registration)
1. Country emissions: http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/datasets_list.php
– Time series (1970-2005) with total annual emissions by world region and country
– Annual emissions by country and standard sectors (using the IPCC source category definitions)

2. Annual gridded emission in 3 different spatial resolutions: http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/datasets_grid_list.php
– 0.1 x 0.1 degree
– 0.5 x 0.5 degree
– 1.0 x 1.0 degree

EDGAR v4.0 forthcoming data
Other datasets are in preparation for the non-Kyoto greenhouse gases, Ozone Depleting substances, Ozone precursor gases, Primary particulates (PM10, PM2.5) and Primary Aerosols (BC, OC).
You will be informed in due time by e-mail or by checking the new EDGAR website http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/overview.php

Announcement of EDGAR users meeting:
On Tuesday and Wednesday 24-25 November 2009, an EDGAR users meeting will be organized at the JRC in Ispra, Italy. The aim of these 2 days is to exchange information between users and the EDGAR team. EDGAR users will be given the opportunity to present modeling and policy studies using EDGAR data, followed by presentations on the development of EDGAR v4.0 and discussion on issues, improvements, collaborations etc. More information will follow in the coming months.

Feedback from users: welcome!
We encourage users of the new EDGAR v4.0 data to provide feedback on the quality of the dataset.

About the EDGAR project
The current development of EDGAR is a joint project of the European Commission JRC Joint Research Centre and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL: http://www.pbl.nl/en/index.html)

For more information about the project please visit the new website http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ , containing information about methodology (incl. differences with earlier datasets), project members, download of country and grid data.
Older EDGAR datasets are available from http://www.pbl.nl/edgar/ , in due time these datasets will be archived on the new website.

EDGAR project team:
John van Aardenne (JRC, project leader), Suvi Monni (JRC), Jos Olivier (PBL), Ulrike Doering (JRC), Lorenzo Orlandini (JRC), Valerio Pagliari (JRC), Jeroen Peters (PBL), Fulgencio Sanmartin (JRC), Greet Maenhout (JRC).

Contact information: edgar-info@jrc.ec.europa.eu

European Commission – JRC Joint Research Centre, IES Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Climate Change Unit, TP 290, I-21020, Ispra (Va), Italy

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GEIA/ACCENT conference on emissions

The GEIA/ACCENT Conference on emissions will take place in Olso (Norway) on October 26-28, 2009.
Information on the preliminary program, abstract submission, financial support and registration are available on the GEIA wesite: http://geiacenter.org.

The deadline for abstracts submission is July, 1st 2009

The deadline for application for financial support is July, 1st 2009

The goal of the conference is to review progress in quantifying emissions of gases and aerosols and their uncertainties: presentations will focus on recent improvements in understanding emissions and using them in chemistry-transport, climate-chemistry and earth-system models. Past and future anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning and natural emissions will be considered, at both regional and global scales. The use of observations in the determination and evaluation of emissions and their trends will be reviewed. It is expected that the discussions, encouraged throughout the conference, will help improve the interface between emission datasets and atmospheric models. Emerging issues in the determination of emissions and their uncertainties will also be addressed.

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Pilot on “Next Generation Summit”

The major objectives of the Pilot were (i) to plan on an event to be jointly organised between air quality and climate scientists, and impact specialists, and (ii) to develop web-based training material on the issue for the “ACCENT Virtual Knowlede Train”. An outreach activity (Café Scientifique) for the media, and an excursion to the Jungfraujoch research laboratory (3,580 m asl) complemented the programme.

Both ACCENT and ENSEMBLES scientists (from Europe / the USA) participated in the activity (download programme). Master students from Switzerland (University of Berne / ETH Zürich) assisted in the testing of the training material and provided valuable feed-back.

The event was organised by the University of Berne, Switzerland (Evi Schuepbach, ACCENT T&E Coordinator), and was linked to the Graduate School of Climate Sciences at Berne University (Master of Science in Climate Sciences Programme, Course No. S7453: Atmospheric Chemistry-Climate Links).

ACCENT T&E wishes to acknowledge the support offered from both Jungfraubahn AG, Interlaken, Switzerland and the International Foundation High Altitude Observatories Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat, at the University of Berne, Switzerland. We especially would like to thank Prof. Erwin Flückiger, Mrs Louise Wilson (both at Berne University), and Mr Felix and Mrs Susanne Seiler (at Jungfraujoch). We also appreciate the kindness of Mr Willi Seiler and Mr Wyss from Jungfraubahn AG, and of Mr Zumbrunn and Mrs Kaufmann (Gletscherrestaurant Jungfraujoch).

All teaching material and the report can be downloaded here.

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